Oocyte donation is the process whereby a woman uses egg from a donor to fulfil her desire of becoming a mother.
The oocytes from the donor is combined with spermatozoa from the husband to make embryos which are then transferred inside the recipient wife’s uterus in order to achieve pregnancy. As such, oocytes donation gives women, who cannot have children, the opportunity to become pregnant from the donor eggs and husband sperm and thus to fulfil her desire of giving birth to a baby.
- Older women where the ovarian reserve is poor.
- Women with poor quality oocytes
- Women with ovarian failure due to menopause, premature ovarian failure or ovarian surgery.
- Women who cannot use their own oocytes, because of hereditary diseases
- Women who have repeatedly failed to get pregnant through in vitro fertilisation.
- Repeated miscarriages.
In order to become a donor a woman must undergo a full medical and psychological assessment that provides us with valuable information about their fertility, state of health and her potential to become mother.
- A donor undergoes a thorough gynaecological check-up to rule out the presence of cysts, myomas, polyps and other irregularities of the reproductive organs.
- A chromosomal study is carried out to rule out the possibility of any future defects in her own babies or in babies born to recipients of her oocytes.
- Blood tests are done to make sure that she is free from any transmissible diseases such as HIV, hepatitis and syphilis, and her blood group and Rh factor will also be checked.
- According to the law on assisted reproduction techniques, oocyte donation is anonymous and voluntary, and as such the identity of either donors or recipients is not revealed. However, information which is important for monitoring the pregnancy correctly can be provided, such as age of the donor.
- The woman receiving the embryos is given medication to prepare her uterus for implantation by the transferred embryos.
- As soon as her endometrium is ready for the embryo transfer she is matched with a suitable donor. Then her husband’s spermatozoa and the donor oocytes are brought into contact through the technique of in vitro fertilisation or ICSI. Once the embryos have been fertilised, they are cultured in the lab till they are ready for transfer. The embryos are then transferred into the recipient’s womb with the help of ET catheter which is a painless procedure
- Pregnancy rates of around 60% can be achieved with this method. Success rates in ART are proportional to the age of the woman producing the oocytes, and oocyte donation is no exception. The oocytes are derived from young (younger than 30 years old) women, and thus the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates are extremely high. Pregnancy rates in oocyte donation programs are equivalent to those seen in young IVF patients who have normal endometrial development.
Thus with development and refinement of the assisted reproductive technologies clinicians can now help the women with absent or irreversibly abnormal oocyte development who were once considered to be functionally sterile and whose only option for building a family was adoption